Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are much trending and also confused terms nowadays. Machine Learning (ML) is a subset of Artificial Intelligence. ML is a science of designing and applying algorithms that are able to learn things from past cases. If some behaviour exists in past, then you may predict if or it can happen again. Means if there are no past cases then there is no prediction.
ML can be applied to solve tough issues like credit card fraud detection, enable self-driving cars and face detection and recognition. ML uses complex algorithms that constantly iterate over large data sets, analyzing the patterns in data and facilitating machines to respond different situations for which they have not been explicitly programmed. The machines learn from the history to produce reliable results. The ML algorithms use Computer Science and Statistics to predict rational outputs.
There are 3 major areas of ML:
In supervised learning, training datasets are provided to the system. Supervised learning algorithms analyse the data and produce an inferred function. The correct solution thus produced can be used for mapping new examples. Credit card fraud detection is one of the examples of Supervised Learning algorithm.
Unsupervised Learning algorithms are much harder because the data to be fed is unclustered instead of datasets. Here the goal is to have the machine learn on its own without any supervision. The correct solution of any problem is not provided. The algorithm itself finds the patterns in the data. One of the examples of supervised learning is Recommendation engines which are there on all e-commerce sites or also on Facebook friend request suggestion mechanism.
This type of Machine Learning algorithms allows software agents and machines to automatically determine the ideal behaviour within a specific context, to maximise its performance. Reinforcement learning is defined by characterising a learning problem and not by characterising learning methods. Any method which is well suited to solve the problem, we consider it to be the reinforcement learning method. Reinforcement learning assumes that a software agent i.e. a robot, or a computer program or a bot, connect with a dynamic environment to attain a definite goal. This technique selects the action that would give expected output efficiently and rapidly.